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I spent the last week in Japan. The goal was two-fold: meet with the Drupal community to understand how we can grow Drupal in Japan, and evaluate the business opportunity to incorporate an Acquia subsidiary in Japan (we already offer Acquia Cloud in Japan using Amazon's Tokyo data center).
I presented at two Drupal meetups in Japan; spent the week meeting with members of the Drupal community, Drupal agencies, large system integrators (IBM, Accenture, Hitachi, Fujitsu, Ci&T and SIOS) and the Japanese government. In between meetings, I enjoyed the amazing food that Japan has to offer.
The community in Japan is healthy; there are some noteworthy Japanese Drupal sites and there are passionate leaders that organize meetups and conferences. The Japanese Drupal community is bigger than the Chinese Drupal community but compared to North America and Europe, the Japanese Drupal community is relatively small; the largest Drupal agency I met with employs 20 developers.
The large system integrators, with the exception of Ci&T, have not done any Drupal projects in Japan. We're way behind our competitors like Sitecore, Adobe Experience Manager and SDL in this regard. All of them enabled the large system integrators to sell and use their products. It was great to meet with all the system integrators to make them aware of Drupal, and the potential it could have to their business. It's clear the large system integrators could benefit from an Open Source platform that allows them to move faster and integrate with more systems.
The biggest challenge is the lack of Japanese documentation; both marketing materials as well as developer documentation. Most of the Japanese do not have much confidence in their English speaking ability and struggle to use Drupal or to participate on drupal.org. My recommendation for the Japanese Drupal community is to organize regular translation sprints. Translating one or more of the best-selling English Drupal books to Japanese could also be a game-changer for the community.
Another problem has been the historic challenges with drupal.jp. The anonymous owner of the domain drupal.jp claims that drupal.jp is the official Drupal site in Japan (it's not officially approved) and runs it without much regard or consultation with the broader Japanese Drupal community. I promised the Japanese community to help fix this.
I returned from my trip feeling that the Japanese market offers a great opportunity for Drupal. Japan is the world's third-largest economy, after the United States and China. With continued leadership, Drupal could be huge in Japan. I’d love that, as I would like to go back and visit Japan again.
I just spent the past week in China, and I thought I'd share a few reflections on the state of Drupal in China.
First, let me set the stage. There are 1.35 billion people living in China; that is almost 20 percent of the world's population. Based on current trends, China's economy will overtake the US within the next few years. At that point, the US economy will no longer be the largest economy in the world. China's rapid urbanization is what has led to the country's impressive economic growth over the past couple of decades and it doesn't look like it is going to stop anytime soon. To put that in perspective: China currently produces and uses 60 percent of the world's cement.
In terms of Drupal, the first thing I learned is that "Drupal" sounds like "the pig is running" ("Zhu Pao") in Chinese. Contrary to a pig's rather negative reputation in the West, many Chinese developers find that cute. A pig is a more honorable sign in Chinese astrology and culture. Phew!
In terms of adoption, it feels like the Drupal community in China is about 8 to 10 years behind compared to North America or Europe. That isn't a surprise, as Open Source software is a more recent phenomenon in China than it is in North America or Europe.
Specifically, there are about 5 Drupal companies in Shanghai (population of 21 million people), 3 Drupal companies in Beijing (population of 23 million people) and 5 Drupal companies in Hong Kong (population of 7 million people). The largest Drupal companies in China have about 5 Drupal developers on staff. Four of the 5 Shanghai companies are subsidiaries from European Drupal companies. The exception is Ci&T, which has 40 Drupal developers in China. Ci&T is a global systems integrator with several thousand employees worldwide, so unlike the other companies I met, they are not a pure Drupal play. Another point of reference is that the largest Drupal event in China attracted 200 to 300 attendees.
Given that China has 4 times the population of the US, or 2 times the population of Europe, what are we missing? In talking to different people, it appears the biggest barrier to adoption is language. The problem is that Chinese Drupal documentation is limited; translation efforts exist but are slow. The little documentation that is translated is often outdated and spread out over different websites. Less than 20 percent of the Chinese Drupal developers have an account on Drupal.org, simply because they are not fluent enough in the English language. Most Drupal developers hang out on QQ, an instant messaging tool comparable to Skype or IRC. I saw QQ channels dedicated to Drupal with a couple thousand of Drupal developers.
There is no prominent Chinese content management system; most people appear to be building their websites from scratch. This gap could provide a big opportunity for Drupal. China's urbanization equals growth -- and lots of it. Like the rest of the economy, Drupal and Open Source could be catching up fast, and it might not take long before some of the world's biggest Drupal projects are delivered from China.
Supporting Drupal's global growth is important so I'd love to improve Drupal's translation efforts and make Drupal more inclusive and more diverse. Drupal 8's improved multilingual capabilities should help a lot, but we also have to improve the tools and processes on Drupal.org to help the community maintain multi-lingual documentation. Discussing this with both the Drupal Association and different members of our community, it's clear that we have a lot of good ideas on what we could do but lack both the funding and resources to make it happen faster.
After spending the summer in Boston, I'm ready to fly across the world ... literally, as I'm leaving on a two week trip to China and Japan later this week. I'm very excited about it as I've never had the opportunity to see either of these countries.
I will arrive in Beijing on Saturday, September 6th, for the Young Global Leaders Annual Summit. A private path from where I'll be staying leads to a non-restored section of the epic Great Wall of China. Exploring this truly untouched piece of Chinese history still in its original landscape should be a special experience! Stay tuned for photos.
Following my time in Beijing, I'll transfer to Tianjin to attend Summer Davos. In addition to that, we're organizing a meetup with the local Drupal community - https://groups.drupal.org/node/434658. If you are in the area on September 10th, please stop by for a drink. I'd love to meet you and learn about the state of Drupal in China.
I'll end my two week trip in Tokyo, Japan. My time will be split between meeting the local Drupal community - https://groups.drupal.org/node/440198, understanding the adoption rate of Drupal in the Japanese market, and attending private meetings with digital agencies, Acquia partners and others to learn about the state of the web and digital in Japan.
Xièxiè and dōmo arigatō to those that have helped plan these events and gather the Drupal community for some fun evenings!
If you aren't able to make either Drupal meetup, feel free to leave your thoughts in the comments.
I have an idea but currently don't have the time or resources to work on it. So I'm sharing the idea here, hoping we can at least discuss it, and maybe someone will even feel inspired to take it on.
The idea is based on two predictions. First, I'm convinced that the future of web sites or web applications is component-based platforms (e.g. Drupal modules, WordPress plugins, etc). Second, I believe that the best way to deploy and use web sites or web applications is through a SaaS hosting environment (e.g. WordPress.com, DrupalGardens, SalesForce's Force.com platform, DemandWare's SaaS platform, etc). Specifically, I believe that in the big picture on-premise software is a "transitional state". It may take another 15 years, but on-premise software will become the exception rather than the standard. Combined, these two predictions present a future where we have component-based platforms running in SaaS environments.
To get the idea, imagine a WordPress.com, SquareSpace, Wix or DrupalGardens where you can install every module/plugin available, including your own custom modules/plugins, instead of being limited to those modules/plugins manually approved by their vendors. This is a big deal because one of the biggest challenges with running web sites or web applications is that almost every user wants to extend or customize the application beyond what is provided out of the box.
Web applications have to be (1) manageable, (2) extensible, (3) customizable and (4) robust. The problem is that we don't have a programming language or an execution runtime that is able to meet all four of these requirements in the context of building and running dynamic component-based applications.
What we really need here is an execution runtime that allows you to install untrusted components and guarantee application robustness at the same time. Such technology would be a total game-changer as we could build unlimited customizable SaaS platforms that leverage the power of community innovation. You'd be able to install any Drupal module on DrupalGardens, any plugin on WordPress.com or custom code on Squarespace or Wix. It would fundamentally disrupt the entire industry and would help us achieve the assembled web dream.
I've been giving this some thought, and what I think we need is the ability to handle each HTTP request in a micro-kernel-like environment where each software component (i.e. Drupal module, WordPress plugin) runs in its own isolated process or environment and communicates with the other components through a form of inter-process communication (i.e. think remote procedure calls or web service calls). It is a lot harder to implement than it sounds as the inter-process communication could add huge overhead (e.g. we might need fast or clever ways to safely share data between isolated components without having to copy or transfer a lot of data around). Alternatively, virtualization technology like Docker might help us move in this direction as well. Their goal of a lightweight container is a step towards micro-services but it is likely to have more communication overhead. In both scenarios, Drupal would look a lot like a collection of micro web services (Drupal 10 anyone?).
Once we have such a runtime, we can implement and enforce governance and security policies for each component (e.g. limit its memory usage, limit its I/O, security permission, but also control access to the underlying platform like the database). We'd have real component-based isolation along with platform-level governance: (1) manageable, (2) extensible, (3) customizable and (4) robust.
Food for thought and discussion?
The notion that people contributing to Open Source don't get paid is false. Contributors to Open Source are compensated for their labor; not always with financial capital (i.e. a paycheck) but certainly with social capital. Social capital is a rather vague and intangible concept so let me give some examples. If you know someone at a company where you are applying for a job and this connection helps you get that job, you have used social capital. Or if you got a lead or a business opportunity through your network, you have used social capital. Or when you fall on hard times and you rely on friends for emotional support, you're also using social capital.
The term "social" refers to the fact that the value is in the network of relationships; they can't be owned like personal assets. Too many people believe that success in life is based on the individual, and that if you do not have success in life, there is no one to blame but yourself. The truth is that individuals who build and use social capital get better jobs, better pay, faster promotions and are more effective compared to peers who are not tapping the power of social capital. As shown in the examples, social capital also translates into happiness and well-being.
Most Open Source contributors benefit from social capital but may not have stopped to think about it, or may not value it appropriately. Most of us in the Open Source world have made friendships for life, have landed jobs because of our contributions, others have started businesses together, and for others it has provided an important sense of purpose. Once you become attuned to spotting social capital being leveraged, you see it everywhere, every day. I could literally write a book filled with hundreds of stories about how contributing to Open Source changed people's lives -- I love hearing these stories.
Social capital is a big deal; it is worth understanding, worth talking about, and worth investing in. It is key to achieving personal success, business success and even happiness.