Last year around this time, I wrote that The Big Reverse of Web would force a major re-architecture of the web to bring the right information, to the right person, at the right time, in the right context. I believe that conversational interfaces like Amazon Echo are further proof that the big reverse is happening.
New user experience and distribution platforms only come along every 5-10 years, and when they do, they cause massive shifts in the web's underlying technology. The last big one was mobile, and the web industry adapted. Conversational interfaces could be the next user experience and distribution platform – just look at Amazon Echo (aka Alexa), Facebook's messenger or Microsoft's Conversation-as-a-Platform.
Today, hardly anyone questions whether to build a mobile-optimized website. A decade from now, we might be saying the same thing about optimizing digital experiences for voice or chat commands. The convenience of a customer experience will be a critical key differentiator. As a result, no one will think twice about optimizing their websites for multiple interaction patterns, including conversational interfaces like voice and chat. Anyone will be able to deliver a continuous user experience across multiple channels, devices and interaction patterns. In some of these cross-channel experiences, users will never even look at a website. Conversational interfaces let users disintermediate the website by asking anything and getting instant, often personalized, results.
To prototype this future, my team at Acquia built a fully functional demo based on Drupal 8 and recorded a video of it. In the demo video below, we show a sample supermarket chain called Gourmet Market. Gourmet Market wants their customers to not only shop online using their website, but also use Echo or push notifications to do business with them.
We built an Alexa integration module to connect Alexa to the Gourmet Market site and to answer questions about sale items. For example, you can speak the command: "Alexa, ask Gourmet Market what fruits are on sale today". From there, Alexa would make a call to the Gourmet Market website, finding what is on sale in the specified category and pull only the needed information related to your ask.
On the website's side, a store manager can tag certain items as "on sale", and Alexa's voice responses will automatically and instantly reflect those changes. The marketing manager needs no expertise in programming -- Alexa composes its response by talking to Drupal 8 using web service APIs.
The demo video also shows how a site could deliver smart notifications. If you ask for an item that is not on sale, the Gourmet Market site can automatically notify you via text once the store manager tags it as "On Sale".
From a technical point of view, we've had to teach Drupal how to respond to a voice command, otherwise known as a "Skill", coming into Alexa. Alexa Skills are fairly straightforward to create. First, you specify a list of "Intents", which are basically the commands you want users to run in a way very similar to Drupal's routes. From there, you specify a list of "Utterances", or sentences you want Echo to react to that map to the Intents. In the example of Gourmet Market above, the Intents would have a command called
GetSaleItems. Once the command is executed, your Drupal site will receive a webhook callback on
/alexa/callback with a payload of the command and any arguments. The Alexa module for Drupal 8 will validate that the request really came from Alexa, and fire a Drupal Event that allows any Drupal module to respond.
It's exciting to think about how new user experiences and distribution platforms will change the way we build the web in the future. As I referenced in Drupalcon New Orleans keynote, the Drupal community needs to put some thought into how to design and build multichannel customer experiences. Voice assistance, chatbots or notifications are just one part of the greater equation. If you have any further thoughts on this topic, please share them in the comments.
I love street photography. Walking and shooting. Walking, talking and shooting. Slightly pushing me out of my comfort zone looking for that one great photo.
Street photography is all fun and games until someone pulls out a handgun. The anarchy sign in the background makes these shots complete.
For more photos, check out the entire album.
DrupalCon New Orleans comes at an important time in the history of Drupal. Now that Drupal 8 has launched, we have a lot of work to do to accelerate Drupal 8's adoption as well as plan what is next.
In my keynote presentation, I shared my thoughts on where we should focus our efforts in order for Drupal to continue its path to become the leading platform for assembling the world's best digital experiences.
Based on recent survey data, I proposed key initiatives for Drupal, as well as shared my vision for building cross-channel customer experiences that span various devices, including conversational technologies like Amazon Echo.
There is much more data hidden in the raw survey results, so if you'd like to do your own analysis, you can download a copy of the raw survey results (CSV format or XLS format) and look at the raw data yourself. I anonymized the data by removing the names, e-mail addresses and IP address information. If you decide to analyze the raw data, consider sharing your findings with all of us.
Take a look, and as always feel free to leave your opinions in the comments!
Today's third-party applications increasingly depend on web services to retrieve and manipulate data, and Drupal offers a range of web services options for API-first content delivery. For example, a robust first-class web services layer is now available out-of-the-box with Drupal 8. But there are also new approaches to expose Drupal data, including Services and newer entrants like RELAXed Web Services and GraphQL.
The goal of this blog post is to enable Drupal developers in need of web services to make an educated decision about the right web services solution for their project. This blog post also sets the stage for a future blog post, where I plan to share my thoughts about how I believe we should move Drupal core's web services API forward. Getting aligned on our strengths and weaknesses is an essential first step before we can brainstorm about the future.
The Drupal community now has a range of web services modules available in core and as contributed modules sharing overlapping missions but leveraging disparate mechanisms and architectural styles to achieve them. Here is a comparison table of the most notable web services modules in Drupal 8:
|Content entity CRUD||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Configuration entity CRUD||Create resource plugin (issue)||Create resource plugin||Yes|
|Custom resources||Create resource plugin||Create resource plugin||Create Services plugin|
|Custom routes||Create resource plugin or Views REST export (GET)||Create resource plugin||Configurable route prefixes|
|Renderable objects||Not applicable||Not applicable||Yes (no contextual blocks or views)|
|Translations||Not yet (issue)||Yes||Create Services plugin|
|Revisions||Create resource plugin||Yes||Create Services plugin|
|File attachments||Create resource plugin||Yes||Create Services plugin|
|Shareable UUIDs (GET)||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Authenticated user resources (log in/out, password reset)||Not yet (issue)||No||User login and logout|
Core RESTful Web Services
Thanks to the Web Services and Context Core Initiative (WSCCI), Drupal 8 is now an out-of-the-box REST server with operations to create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) content entities such as nodes, users, taxonomy terms, and comments. The four primary REST modules in core are:
- Serialization is able to perform serialization by providing normalizers and encoders. First, it normalizes Drupal data (entities and their fields) into arrays with a particular structure. Any normalization can then be sent to an encoder, which transforms those arrays into data formats such as JSON or XML.
- RESTful Web Services allows for HTTP methods to be performed on existing resources including but not limited to content entities and views (the latter facilitated through the “REST export" display in Views) and custom resources added through REST plugins.
- HAL builds on top of the Serialization module and adds the Hypertext Application Language normalization, a format that enables you to design an API geared toward clients moving between distinct resources through hyperlinks.
- Basic Auth allows you to include a username and password with request headers for operations requiring permissions beyond that of an anonymous user. It should only be used with HTTPS.
Core REST adheres strictly to REST principles in that resources directly match their URIs (accessible via a query parameter, e.g.
?_format=json for JSON) and in the ability to serialize non-content into JSON or XML representations. By default, core REST also includes two authentication mechanisms: basic authentication and cookie-based authentication.
While core REST provides a range of features with only a few steps of configuration there are several reasons why other options, available as contributed modules, may be a better choice. Limitations of core REST include the lack of support for configuration entities as well as the inability to include file attachments and revisions in response payloads. With your help, we can continue to improve and expand core's REST support.
RELAXed Web Services
As I highlighted in my recent blog post about improving Drupal's content workflow, RELAXed Web Services, is part of a larger suite of modules handling content staging and deployment across environments. It is explicitly tied to the CouchDB API specification, and when enabled, will yield a REST API that operates like the CouchDB REST API. This means that CouchDB integration with client-side libraries such as PouchDB and Hood.ie makes possible offline-enabled Drupal, which synchronizes content once the client regains connectivity. Moreover, people new to Drupal with exposure to CouchDB will immediately understand the API, since there is robust documentation for the endpoints.
RELAXed Web Services depends on core's REST modules and extends its functionality by adding support for translations, parent revisions (through the Multiversion module), file attachments, and especially cross-environment UUID references, which make it possible to replicate content to Drupal sites or other CouchDB compatible services. UUID references and revisions are essential to resolving merge conflicts during the content staging process. I believe it would be great to support translations, parent revisions, file attachments, and UUID references in core's RESTful web services — we simply didn't get around to them in time for Drupal 8.0.0.
Since RESTful Web Services are now incorporated into Drupal 8 core, relevant contributed modules have either been superseded or have gained new missions in the interest of extending existing core REST functionality. In the case of Services, a popular Drupal 7 module for providing Drupal data to external applications, the module has evolved considerably for its upcoming Drupal 8 release.
With Services in Drupal 8 you can assign a custom name to your endpoint to distinguish your resources from those provisioned by core and also provision custom resources similar to core's RESTful Web Services. In addition to content entities, Services supports configuration entities such as blocks and menus — this can be important when you want to build a decoupled application that leverages Drupal's menu and blocks system. Moreover, Services is capable of returning renderable objects encoded in JSON, which allows you to use Drupal's server-side rendering of blocks and menus in an entirely distinct application.
At the time of this writing, the Drupal 8 version of Services module is not yet feature-complete: there is no test coverage, no content entity validation (when creating or modifying), no field access checking, and no CSRF protection, so caution is important when using Services in its current state, and contributions are greatly appreciated.
GraphQL, originally created by Facebook to power its data fetching, is a query language that enables fewer queries and limits response bloat. Rather than tightly coupling responses with a predefined schema, GraphQL overturns this common practice by allowing for the client's request to explicitly tailor a response so that the client only receives what it needs: no more and no less. To accomplish this, client requests and server responses have a shared shape. It doesn't fall into the same category as the web services modules that expose a REST API and as such is absent from the table above.
GraphQL shifts responsibility from the server to the client: the server publishes its possibilities, and the client publishes its requirements instead of receiving a response dictated solely by the server. In addition, information from related entities (e.g. both a node's body and its author's e-mail address) can be retrieved in a single request rather than successive ones.
Typical REST APIs tend to be static (or versioned, in many cases, e.g.
/api/v1) in order to facilitate backwards compatibility for applications. However, in Drupal's case, when the underlying content model is inevitably augmented or otherwise changed, schema compatibility is no longer guaranteed. For instance, when you remove a field from a content type or modify it, Drupal's core REST API is no longer compatible with those applications expecting that field to be present. With GraphQL's native schema introspection and client-specified queries, the API is much less opaque from the client's perspective in that the client is aware of what response will result according to its own requirements.
I'm very bullish on the potential for GraphQL, which I believe makes a lot of sense in core in the long term. I featured the project in my Barcelona keynote (demo video), and Acquia also sponsored development of the GraphQL module (Drupal 8 only) following DrupalCon Barcelona. The GraphQL module, created by Sebastian Siemssen, now supports read queries, implements the GraphiQL query testing interface, and can be integrated with Relay (with some limitations).
For most simple REST API use cases, core REST is adequate, but core REST can be insufficient for more complex use cases. Depending on your use case, you may need more off-the-shelf functionality without the need to write a resource plugin or custom code, such as support for configuration entity CRUD (Services); for revisions, file attachments, translations, and cross-environment UUIDs (RELAXed); or for client-driven queries (GraphQL).
Special thanks to Preston So for contributions to this blog post and to Moshe Weitzman, Kyle Browning, Kris Vanderwater, Wim Leers, Sebastian Siemssen, Tim Millwood and Ted Bowman for their feedback during its writing.
In a recent post we talked about how introducing outside-in experiences could improve the Drupal site-building experience by letting you immediately edit simple configuration without leaving the page. In a follow-up blog post, we provided concrete examples of how we can apply outside-in to Drupal.
The feedback was overwhelmingly positive. However, there were also some really important questions raised. The most common concern was the idea that the mockups ignored "context".
When we showed how to place a block "outside-in", we placed it on a single page. However, in Drupal a block can also be made visible for specific pages, types, roles, languages, or any number of other contexts. The flexibility this provides is one place where Drupal shines.
Why context matters
For the sake of simplicity and focus we intentionally did not address how to handle context in outside-in in the last post. However, incorporating context into "outside-in" thinking is fundamentally important for at least two reasons:
- Managing context is essential to site building. Site builders commonly want to place a block or menu item that will be visible on not just one but several pages or to not all but some users. A key principle of outside-in is previewing as you edit. The challenge is that you want to preview what site visitors will see, not what you see as a site builder or site administrator.
- Managing context is a big usability problem on its own. Even without outside-in patterns, making context simple and usable is an unsolved problem. Modules like Context and Panels have added lots of useful functionality, but all of it happens away from the rendered page.
The ingredients: user groups and page groups
To begin to incorporate context into outside-in, Kevin Oleary, with input from yoroy, Bojhan, Angie Byron, Gábor Hojtsy and others, has iterated on the block placement examples that we presented in the last post, to incorporate some ideas for how we can make context outside-in. We're excited to share our ideas and we'd love your feedback so we can keep iterating.
To solve the problem, we recommend introducing 3 new concepts:
- Page groups: re-usable collections of URLs, wildcards, content types, etc.
- User groups: reusable collections of roles, user languages, or other user attributes.
- Impersonation: the ability to view the page as a user group.
Most sites have some concept of a "section" or "type" of page that may or may not equate to a content type. A commerce store for example may have a "kids" section with several product types that share navigation or other blocks. Page groups adapts to this by creating reusable "bundles" of content consisting either of a certain type (e.g. all research reports), or of manually curated lists of pages (e.g. a group that includes /home, /contact us, and /about us), or a combination of the two (similar to Context module but context never provided an in-place UI).
User groups would combine multiple user contexts like role, language, location, etc. Example user groups could be "Authenticated users logged in from the United States", or "Anonymous users that signed up to our newsletter". The goal is to combine the massive number of potential contexts into understandable "bundles" that can be used for context and impersonation.
As mentioned earlier, a challenge is that you want to preview what site visitors will see, not what you see as a site builder or site administrator. Impersonation allows site builders to switch between different user groups. Switching between different user groups allow a page to be previewed as that type of user.
Using page groups, user groups and impersonation
Let's take a look at how we use these 3 ingredients in an example. For the purpose of this blog post, we want to focus on two use cases:
- I'm a site builder working on a life sciences journal with a paywall and I want to place a block called "Download report" next to all entities of type "Research summary" (content type), but only to users with the role "Subscriber" (user role).
- I want to place a block called "Access reports" on the main page, the "About us" page, and the "Contact us" page (URL based), and all research summary pages, but only to users who are anonymous users.
Things can get more complex but these two use cases are a good starting point and realistic examples of what people do with Drupal.
Step #1: place a block for anonymous users
Let's assume the user is a content editor, and the user groups "Anonymous" and "Subscriber" as well as the page groups "Subscriber pages" and "Public pages" have already been created for her by a site builder. Her first task is to place the "Access reports" block and make it visible only for anonymous users.
Step #2: place a block for subscribers
Our editor's next task is to place the "Download reports" block and make it visible only for subscribers. To do that she is going to want to view the page as a subscriber. Here it's important that this interactions happens smoothly, and with animation, so that changes that occur on the page are not missed.
Step #3: see if you did it right
Once our editor has finished step one and two she will want to go back and make sure that step two did not undo or complicate what was done in step one, for example by making the "Download report" block visible for Anonymous users or vice versa. This is where impersonation comes in.
The idea of combining a number of contexts into a single object is not new, both context and panels do this. What is new here is that when you bring this to the front-end with impersonation, you can make a change that has broad impact while seeing it exactly as your user will.